ADDERALL XR is a once daily extended-release, single-entity amphetamine product. ADDERALL XR combines the neutral sulfate salts of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine, with the dextro isomer of amphetamine saccharate and d,l-amphetamine aspartate monohydrate. The ADDERALL XR capsule contains two types of drug-containing beads designed to give a double-pulsed delivery of amphetamines, which prolongs the release of amphetamine from ADDERALL XR compared to the conventional ADDERALL (immediate-release) tablet formulation (Adderall XR).
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Adderall XR is indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
The efficacy of ADDERALL XR in the treatment of ADHD was established on the basis of two controlled trials in children aged 6 to 12, one controlled trial in adolescents aged 13 to 17, and one controlled trial in adults who met DSM-IV® criteria for ADHD [see Clinical Studies].
A diagnosis of ADHD (DSM-IV®) implies the presence of hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment and were present before age 7 years. The symptoms must cause clinically significant impairment, e.g., in social, academic, or occupational functioning, and be present in two or more settings, e.g., school (or work) and at home.
The symptoms must not be better accounted for by another mental disorder. For the Inattentive Type, at least six of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: lack of attention to details/careless mistakes; lack of sustained attention; poor listener; failure to follow through on tasks; poor organization; avoids tasks requiring sustained mental effort; loses things; easily distracted; forgetful. For the Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, at least six of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: fidgeting/squirming; leaving seat; inappropriate running/climbing; difficulty with quiet activities; “on the go;” excessive talking; blurting answers; can’t wait turn; intrusive. The Combined Type requires both (Adderall XR) inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive criteria to be met.
Special Diagnostic Considerations
Specific etiology of this syndrome is unknown, and there is no single diagnostic test. Adequate diagnosis requires the use not only of medical but of special psychological, educational, and social recredits. Learning may or may not be impaired. The diagnosis must be based upon a complete history and evaluation of the patient and not solely on the presence of the required number of DSM-IV® characteristics.
Need for Comprehensive Treatment Program
Adderall XR is indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include other measures (psychological, educational, social) for patients with this syndrome. Drug treatment may not be indicated for all patients with this syndrome. Stimulants are not intended for use in the patient who exhibits symptoms secondary to environmental factors and/or other primary psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. Appropriate educational placement is essential and psychosocial intervention is often helpful. When remedial measures alone are insufficient, the decision to prescribe stimulant medication will depend upon the physician’s assessment of the chronicity and severity of the child’s symptoms.
The effectiveness of ADDERALL XR for long-term use, i.e., for more than 3 weeks in children and 4 weeks in adolescents and adults, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials. Therefore, the physician who elects to use ADDERALL XR for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.
Dosing Considerations For All Patients
Individualize the dosage according to the therapeutic needs and response of the patient. Administer ADDERALL XR at the lowest effective dosage.
Based on bioequivalence data, patients taking divided doses of immediate-release ADDERALL, (for example, twice daily), may be switched to ADDERALL XR at the same total daily dose taken once daily. Titrate at weekly intervals to appropriate efficacy and tolerability as indicated.
ADDERALL XR capsules may be taken whole, or the capsule may be opened and the entire contents sprinkled on applesauce. If the patient is using the sprinkle administration method, the sprinkled applesauce should be consumed immediately; it should not be stored. Patients should take the applesauce with sprinkled beads in its entirety without chewing. The dose of a single capsule should not be divided. The contents of the entire capsule should be taken, and patients should not take anything less than one capsule per day.
ADDERALL XR may be taken with or without food.
ADDERALL XR should be given upon awakening. Afternoon doses should be avoided because of the potential for insomnia.
Where possible, ADDERALL XR therapy should be interrupted occasionally to determine if there is a recurrence of behavioral symptoms sufficient to require continued therapy.
In children with ADHD who are 6-12 years of age and are either starting treatment for the first time or switching from another medication, start with 10 mg once daily in the morning; daily dosage may be adjusted in increments of 5 mg or 10 mg at weekly intervals. When in the judgment of the clinician a lower initial dose is appropriate, patients may begin treatment with 5 mg once daily in the morning. The maximum recommended dose for children is 30 mg/day; doses greater than 30 mg/day of ADDERALL XR have not been studied in children. ADDERALL XR has not been studied in children under 6 years of age.
The recommended starting dose for adolescents with ADHD who are 13-17 years of age and are either starting treatment for the first time or switching from another medication is 10 mg/day. The dose may be increased to 20 mg/day after one week if ADHD symptoms are not adequately controlled.
In adults with ADHD who are either starting treatment for the first time or switching from another medication, the recommended dose is 20 mg/day.
Dosage Forms And Strengths
- ADDERALL XR 5 mg capsules: Clear/blue (imprinted ADDERALL XR 5 mg)
- ADDERALL XR 10 mg capsules: Blue/blue (imprinted ADDERALL XR 10 mg)
- ADDERALL XR 15 mg capsules: Blue/white (imprinted ADDERALL XR 15 mg)
- ADDERALL XR 20 mg capsules: Orange/orange (imprinted ADDERALL XR 20 mg)
- ADDERALL XR 25 mg capsules: Orange/white (imprinted ADDERALL XR 25 mg)
- ADDERALL XR 30 mg capsules: Natural/orange (imprinted ADDERALL XR 30 mg)
- Storage And Handling
- ADDERALL XR 5 mg capsules: Clear/blue (imprinted ADDERALL XR 5 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 54092-381-01
- ADDERALL XR 10 mg capsules: Blue/blue (imprinted ADDERALL XR 10 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 54092-383-01
- ADDERALL XR 15 mg capsules: Blue/white (imprinted ADDERALL XR 15 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 54092-385-01
- ADDERALL XR 20 mg capsules: Orange/orange (imprinted ADDERALL XR 20 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 54092-387-01
- ADDERALL XR 25 mg capsules: Orange/white (imprinted ADDERALL XR 25 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 54092-389-01
- ADDERALL XR 30 mg capsules: Natural/orange (imprinted ADDERALL XR 30 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 54092-391-01
- Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP.
- Store at 25° C (77° F). Excursions permitted to 15-30° C (59-86° F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]
Some side effects
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
Clinical Studies Experience
The premarketing development program for ADDERALL XR included exposures in a total of 1315 participants in clinical trials (635 pediatric patients, 350 adolescent patients, 248 adult patients, and 82 healthy adult subjects). Of these, 635 patients (ages 6 to 12) were evaluated in two controlled clinical studies, one open-label clinical study, and two single-dose clinical pharmacology studies (N= 40). Safety data on all patients are included in the discussion that follows. Adverse reactions were assessed by collecting adverse reactions, results of physical examinations, vital signs, weights, laboratory analyses, and ECGs.
Adverse reactions during exposure were obtained primarily by general inquiry and recorded by clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. Consequently, it is not possible to provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing adverse reactions without first grouping similar types of reactions into a smaller number of standardized event categories. In the tables and listings that follow, COSTART terminology has been used to classify reported adverse reactions.
The stated frequencies of adverse reactions represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse event of the type listed.
Adverse Reactions Leading to Discontinuation of Treatment
In two placebo-controlled studies of up to 5 weeks duration among children with ADHD, 2.4% (10/425) of ADDERALL XR-treated patients. Discontinued due to adverse reactions (including 3 patients with loss of appetite, one of whom also reported insomnia) compared to 2.7% (7/259) receiving placebo.
The most frequent adverse reactions leading to discontinuation of ADDERALL XR in controlled and uncontrolled, multiple-dose clinical trials of children (N=595) were anorexia (loss of appetite) (2.9%), insomnia (1.5%), weight loss (1.2%), emotional lability (1%), and depression (0.7%). Over half of these patients were exposed to ADDERALL XR for 12 months or more.
In a separate placebo-controlled 4-week study in adolescents with ADHD, five patients (2.1%) discontinued treatment due to adverse events among ADDERALL XR-treated patients (N=233) compared to none who received placebo (N=54). The most frequent adverse event leading to discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (i.e. leading to discontinuation in at least 1% of ADDERALL XR-treated patients and at a rate at least twice that of placebo) was insomnia (1.3%, n=3).
In one placebo-controlled 4-week study among adults with ADHD with doses 20 mg to 60 mg, 23 patients (12.0% ) discontinued treatment due to adverse events among ADDERALL XR-treated patients (N=191) compared to one patient (1.6%) who received placebo (N=64). The most frequent adverse events leading to discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (i.e. leading to discontinuation in at least 1% of ADDERALL XR-treated patients and at a rate at least twice that of placebo) were insomnia (5.2%, n=10), anxiety (2.1%, n=4), nervousness(1.6%, n=3), dry mouth (1.6%, n=3), anorexia (1.6%, n=3), tachycardia (1.6%, n=3), headache (1.6%, n=3), and asthenia (1.0%, n=2).